# 1 Summary

Knox, Lowe, and Mummolo in an important study show how standard estimators underestimate discrimination when a set of plausible conditions hold. The study provides a textbook example of risks of bias that can arise from a common strategy for estimating discrimination. (Here is a less technical note that builds off Bronner’s nice explainer with a walk through the intuition with a focus on collider bias.)

Since then:

Here I “declare” a version of this counterexample, confirm that it is indeed a counterexample (and that there are more like it!) and dig a little into what is needed for this kind of counterexample. I agree with Knox et al that the example is indeed “knife edge” (in the sense that it holds for a parameter set that live on a plane in a cube) and so unlikely. But I still find it striking—and useful—to see that there are edges in which all “arrows” are strong but collider bias is weak. I know I at least had been thinking of the countercases as involving essentially removing arrows from the causal graph. Rather than dismissing the examples I think useful to assess the conditions under which collider bias is more or less of a concern.

# 2 The counterexample really is a counterexample with real causal relations between nodes

The example involves a situation in which there is a graph with a path of the form $$D \rightarrow M \leftarrow U$$ but for which $$D$$ is independent of $$U$$ when $$M=1$$. Specifically we have this causal graph involving $$D$$ (Race), $$M$$ (Being stopped), $$U$$ (Unobserved factor affecting stops and the use of force) and $$Y$$ (use of force).

library(CausalQueries)
make_model("Y <- D -> M -> Y <- U; U ->M") %>% plot I use DeclareDesign to declare the design and counterexample which lets us assess properties of the design quickly.

Declaration in this chunk:

pr_D = .66  # Probability D = 1
pr_U = .45  # Probability U = 1
a <- 4      # A parameter

design <-

declare_population(N = 10000,
D = rbinom(N, size = 1, prob = pr_D),
U = rbinom(N, size = 1, prob = pr_U)) +
declare_potential_outcomes(M ~ rbinom(N, size = 1,  prob = (1+3*D)*(1+U)/8),
conditions = list(D = 0:1, U = 0:1)) +
declare_reveal(outcome_variables = "M", assignment_variables = c("D", "U")) +
declare_potential_outcomes(Y ~ M*rbinom(N, size = 1, prob = (1+D)*(1+U)/a),
conditions = list(D = 0:1)) +
declare_reveal(outcome_variables = "Y",
assignment_variables = c("D")) +
declare_estimand(CDE = mean((Y_D_1 - Y_D_0)[M==1])) +
declare_estimator(Y ~ D, subset = M == 1, estimand = "CDE")

Sample data can be drawn from the design:

df <- draw_data(design)

We see that the variables that should be correlated with each other are correlated with each other:

df %>% select(D, M, U, Y) %>% cor %>% kable
D M U Y
D 1.0000000 0.5166443 0.0014289 0.4943968
M 0.5166443 1.0000000 0.3756155 0.7854216
U 0.0014289 0.3756155 1.0000000 0.5228861
Y 0.4943968 0.7854216 0.5228861 1.0000000

Here is the diagnosis:

design %>%
diagnose_design %>% reshape_diagnosis %>% kable(caption = "Diagnosis")
Diagnosis
Design Label Estimand Label Estimator Label Term N Sims Bias RMSE Power Coverage Mean Estimate SD Estimate Mean Se Type S Rate Mean Estimand
. CDE estimator D 500 -0.00 0.02 1.00 0.97 0.41 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.41
(0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.01) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00)

And here is the diagnosis of a perturbed design. Here I just change parameter a and diagnose again.

design %>%
redesign(a = 5) %>% diagnose_design %>% reshape_diagnosis %>% kable(caption = "A perturbation")
A perturbation
Design Label a Estimand Label Estimator Label Term N Sims Bias RMSE Power Coverage Mean Estimate SD Estimate Mean Se Type S Rate Mean Estimand
. 5 CDE estimator D 500 -0.00 0.02 1.00 0.97 0.32 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.32
(0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.01) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00)

# 3 Why no collider bias?

We can see in the data that conditional independence seems to hold when $$M=1$$ despite $$M$$ being a collider:

df %>% filter(M==1) %>% select(D, U) %>% cor
             D            U
D  1.000000000 -0.007888153
U -0.007888153  1.000000000

Though not when $$M=0$$.

df %>% filter(M==0) %>% select(D, U) %>% cor
           D          U
D  1.0000000 -0.4624127
U -0.4624127  1.0000000

Why is that? Is the counterexample “generic”?

Pearl readers expect such exceptions to be rare, but let’s look more carefully to see why we get an exception here. Let’s say $$p_{u,d,m}$$ is the probability that $$U=u, D=d$$ and $$M=m$$. We are interested in whether $$U$$ and $$D$$ are independent given $$M=1$$. Now let’s ask in particular if $$\Pr(U=1 | D=1, M=1)= \Pr(U=1 | D=0, M=1)$$

Or:

$\frac{p_{1,1,1}}{p_{1,1,1} + p_{0,1,1}} = \frac{p_{1,0,1}}{p_{1,0,1} + p_{0,0,1}}$

$({p_{1,0,1} + p_{0,0,1}} ){p_{1,1,1}} = ({p_{1,1,1} + p_{0,1,1}}){p_{1,0,1}}$ ${p_{0,0,1}} {p_{1,1,1}} = {p_{0,1,1}}{p_{1,0,1}}$ Note that given the graph, this does not depend on $$\Pr(U=1)$$ or $$\Pr(D=1)$$ but rather on whether:

$\Pr(M=1 | U = 1, D=1)\Pr(M = 1 | U = 0, D=0) = \Pr(M=1 | U = 1, D=0)\Pr(M = 1 | U = 0, D=1)$

Thanks to the multiplicative function in the current example we indeed have:

$\frac{(1+3)(1+1)}8 \frac{(1+0)(1+0)}8 = \frac{(1+0)(1+1)}8 \frac{(1+3)(1+0)}8$

The key thing here it that this condition poses a constraint on the relationship between these three probabilities. Intuitively, they have to live on a plane in a cube.

# 4 Some Takes

Some takes:

• One take: there are indeed cases in which there is no bias from colliders.
• Second take: yes but these are pathological.
• Third take: maybe, but they usefully remind us that there are possibly regions where bias is small.

To wit, a modification that moves us away from the knife edge but for which bias remains quite small:

design_2 <- replace_step(design,step = 2,
declare_potential_outcomes(M ~ rbinom(N, size = 1,  prob = D/3 +(1+3*D)*(1+U)/12),
conditions = list(D = 0:1, U = 0:1)))
df_2 <- draw_data(design_2)
df_2 %>% select(D, M, U, Y) %>% cor %>% kable
D M U Y
D 1.0000000 0.6738154 -0.0091146 0.5541125
M 0.6738154 1.0000000 0.2362920 0.7416996
U -0.0091146 0.2362920 1.0000000 0.4555101
Y 0.5541125 0.7416996 0.4555101 1.0000000
df_2 %>% filter(M==1) %>% select(D, U) %>% cor %>% kable(caption = "Collider bias (conditional correlation)")
Collider bias (conditional correlation)
D U
D 1.0000000 -0.0406237
U -0.0406237 1.0000000
design_2 %>%  diagnose_design %>% reshape_diagnosis %>% kable(caption = "Diagnosis: Another perturbation")
Diagnosis: Another perturbation
Design Label Estimand Label Estimator Label Term N Sims Bias RMSE Power Coverage Mean Estimate SD Estimate Mean Se Type S Rate Mean Estimand
. CDE estimator D 500 -0.02 0.03 1.00 0.92 0.37 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.39
(0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.01) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00)